Brief Chrono Continued

Post War Era

1946 (May 21 <3:20 pm>) 32 year old man (Louis Slotin) receives an estimated 1100 to 2200 rad whole body, 30,000 rad on hands, of mixed neutron and gamma radiation while "tickling the dragon's tail" (hand lowering beryllium reflector around plutonium bomb core); dies nine days later of GI tract syndrome. Bomb core was the same as the one that killed Daghlian. Seven others exposed but none fatally. 1946 (June - July) Crossroads bomb tests at Bikini includes 20 KT underwater burst "Baker".

1946 (Aug 1) Atomic Energy Act is passed; establishes AEC and JCAE.

1946 (Aug) The Oak Ridge facility ships the first nuclear reactor-produced radioisotopes for civilian use to the Barnard Cancer Hospital in St. Louis, Mo.

1946 Dr. Helmuth Ulrich publishes study in "New England Journal of Medicine" showing leukemia rate among radiologists to be eight times that of other doctors.

1946 Reorganization of US Advisory Committee. Renamed National Committee on Radiation Protection and operates out of the Bureau of Standards. Has two subcommittees on radionuclide problems.

1946 US starts nuclear bomb tests in the South Pacific.

1946 Fission products investigated as carcinogenic agents in Chicago.

1946 Hanford establishes a Biology Section under Radiological Sciences Division.

1946-1947 Six patients injected with enriched uranium nitrate at Rochester. Some doses produced kidney damage.

1947 (Jan) Reports about some of the US human radiation experiments, originally classified, are declassified apparently at the suggestion of the researchers involved.

1947 (Feb 26) , C.L. Marshall, an AEC deputy declassification officer, writes, "This document appears to be the most dangerous since it describes experiments performed on human subjects, including the actual injection of the metal, plutonium, into the body. Unless, of course, the legal aspects were covered by the necessary documents, the experimenters and the employing agencies, including the U.S., have been laid open to a devastating lawsuit which would ... have far-reaching results. The coldly scientific manner in which the results are tabulated and discussed would have a very poor effect on the general public." No mention is made to any preceived need for witholding information for national security purposes.

1947 (May) AEC chairman David Lillienthal convenes a group of senior researchers to develop recommendations on the new agency's policies on medical research.

1947 (June) "Secrecy in research is distasteful," the AEC's medical research advisory group declares in a report, "and in the long run is contrary to the best interests of scientific progress."

1947 (Dec 22) "... an education program must be organized so that each person engaged in work that involves radiation exposure may be taught to appreciate the problems of radiation protection, and learn to consider it a personal responsibility to see that he and all those with whom he works are protected adequately from radiation hazards." -- K.Z. Morgan, Clinton National Laboratory.

1947 Hanford experiment on radioiodine in sheep begins.

1947 Work on metabolism of Sr-90 in rhesus monkeys begins (Berkeley).

1947 Publication of Morgan's compendium on tolerance concentrations of radioactive substances. The computational approach.

1947 Parker describes standard setting and operational limits used in MED operations and important principles.

1947 Higinbotham circuit invented.

1947 Improved linear amplifiers make multichannel analyzers possible for nuclide identification.

1947 Early pulse height analyzer used with radiation detectors.

1947 Dynamic condenser electrometer invented by Palevsky, Swank, and Grenchik.

1947 Effects of strontium and plutonium on fetal and infant dogs are reported.

1947 Start of long-term toxicity studies in mice (Argonne) with plutonium, radium, uranium, and fission products.

1947-1950s Drs. treat ringworm of scalp with 400 rad x-ray to cause hair to fall out; later shown to be cause of thyroid tumors (Israel).

1947-1970 Work with radium dial painters and patients resumes at MIT and increases markedly. New population found and added. Osteosarcomas multiply. Carcinoma of sinus appears.

1948 (April - May) Sandstone bomb tests at Eniwetok, 3 tower shots, biggest 49 KT.

1948 (May 14) Four people exposed to fallout of fission products at Eniwetok in the South Pacific.

1948 Heinz Spiess asked to investigate Ra-224 therapy cases in Germany.

1948 Six patients at U. of Rochester who received uranium for kidney function tests described. Threshold for kidney damage described.

1948 Halogen quenching gases introduced in gas-filled detectors.

1949 (Mar 1) AEC announces the selection of a site in Idaho for the National Reactor Testing Station.

1949 (May) William Bailey, maker and user of Radithor, dies of bladder cancer.

1949 (Aug 29) USSR explodes first A-bomb at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

1949 (Sept 7) Accident at Los Alamos Labs 1 person exposed to transuranics.

1949 (Sept 23) Truman announces USSR has tested A-bomb.

1949 (Oct 29) AEC committee headed by Oppenheimer votes against hydrogen bomb. Teller urges construction.

1949 (Dec 2) The Green Run at Hanford reprocesses one ton of irradiated uranium 16 days after irradiation (instead of normal 83-101 days); releases 20,000 curies of xenon-133 and 7,780 curies of iodine-131; plume measures 200 by 40 miles.

1949 First Tri-Partite Conference on Internal Dosimetry (Chalk River, Ontario). Accumulated experience of war years utilized.

1949 NCRP lowers basic "Maximum Permissible Dose" for radiation workers to 0.3 rem/week; risk-benefit philosophy introduced; limits for the general public set at 10% of the occupational limit.

1949 Officials in Mayak Chemical Combine at Chelyabinsk, USSR begin dumping wastes from plutonium production into the Techa River. From 1949 to 1956, 2.75 million curies of radioactivity is dumped into the river without notifying the townspeople downstream. Some exposed to doses as high as 350 rem/yr.

1949 Berkelium discovered by G. T. Seaborg, S. G. Tompson, and A. Ghiorso (United States).

1950 (Jan 21) Truman orders construction of hydrogen bomb.

1950 (Jan)174 Aircraft Factory Kansas, 1 person accidentally exposed to an x-ray device.

1950 (April 11) Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, B-29 crash kills crew of 13 and high explosive of nuclear weapon burns.

1950 (Aug 17) Julius and Ethel Rosenberg indicted in atom spy case.

1950 Second Tri-Partite Conference on Internal Dosimetry (Buckland House, Harwell, U.K.)

1950 Californium discovered by G. T. Seaborg, S. G. Tompson, A. Ghiorso, and K. Street Jr. (United States).

1950 ICRP and ICRU reorganized from pre-war committees and expand scope of interest beyond medicine.

1950 ICRP adopts basic MPC of 0.3 R/week for radiation workers.

1950s Radium beagle studies in Utah and Davis.

1950s AEC develops regulations for individual radionuclides under occupational exposure conditions.

1950s Fallout shelters are built as part of major Civil Defense program.

1950-1954 Work with tritium at Hanford includes checks in man.

1950s-1960s Argonne study of Ottawa and La Salle, Illinois radium dial painters.

1950s-1970 Large scale program at Argonne on toxicity of radium in mice.

1951 (Jan - Feb) Sandstone bomb tests at Nevada Test Site, five air drops; yield range 1.0 - 22 KT. in the Ranger Series

1951 (April - May) Greenhouse bomb tests at Eniwetok; four tower shots.

1951 (Oct - Nov) Buster-Jangle bomb tests at Nevada Test Site; 7 shots from 0.1 to 31 KT; includes first surface and underground bursts (each 1.2 KT).

1951 (Dec 20) First electricity is generated from atomic power at EBR-1 Idaho National Engineering Lab, Idaho Falls.

1951 Rocky Flats Nuclear Weapons Facility is constructed 16 mi. from Denver.

1951 Follow-up of Los Alamos plutonium workers begins.

1951 K. Z. Morgan suggests lowering allowable exposure levels of radon.

1951 First organizational recommendations since 1941 for permissible levels of radionuclides, primarily from NCRP.

1952 (April - June) Tumbler-Snapper bomb tests at Nevada Test Site; 8 shots; yields 1 to 31 KT.

1952 (June 2) Reactor criticality accident at Argonne National Labs, 4 persons exposed.

1952 (July 9) Accidental exposure of 1 person to transuranics at Los Alamos Scientific Labs.

1952 (Oct - Nov) Ivy bomb tests at Pacific Proving Grounds; 2 shots; includes first hydrogen bomb: "Mike".

1952 (Oct 3) Great Britain explodes its first A-bomb (25 KT) in lagoon of Monte Bello Islands off Western Australia.

1952 (Oct 31) US explodes the first hydrogen bomb.

1952 (Oct) Operations begin at the Savannah River Plant in Aiken, South Carolina, with the startup of the heavy water plant.

1952 (Dec 12) Explosion and meltdown at NRX reactor Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. Future U.S. president Jimmy Carter, thru his involvement in the US Nuclear Submarine program, is one of the volunteer workers who participates in the cleanup, going in until he receives his Maximum Permissible Dose.

1952 Charlie Steen discovers largest underground uranium deposit ever found in U.S. and begins the uranium boom.

1952 Long-term experiments on thousands of mice with Sr/Y (Argonne).

1952 Follow-up on Ra-224 cases begins.

1952 First beagle injected with radioactive material at Utah.

1952 Synthesis of einsteinium discovered in products of first thermonuclear test. Kept secret until 1955.

1952 Marinelli studies transport of radium in lung of man (ANL).

1953 (Jan) Experimental reactor criticality accident in USSR, 2 persons exposed, doses of 300 rem and 450 rem external gamma.

1953 (Mar - June) Upshot-Knothole bomb tests at Nevada Test Site; 11 shots 0.2 - 61 KT; first firing of nuclear warhead from cannon (15 KT) and Shot Harry which leads to contamination of St. George, Utah and the "downwinders".

1953 (June 19) Rosenbergs executed as spies who gave the plans for the atomic bomb to the USSR.

1953 (Aug 12) USSR explodes its first hydrogen bomb.

1953 (Oct 14 & 26) Operation Totem, British tests, 10 KT and 8 KT explode at Emu Field test site in South Australia. In Operation Hot Box, 3 men fly thru mushroom cloud six minutes after detonation of Totem 1 and receive 10-15 rem.

1953 (Dec 8) Eisenhower delivers "Atoms for Peace" speech to UN General Assembly.

1953 (Dec 23) Oppenheimer loses security clearance due to contact with Communists in the '30s (and opposition to H-bomb.)

1953 International Commission on Radiological Units introduces concept of absorbed dose defining the rad as depositing 100 ergs per gram of any substance.

1953 Synthesis of fermium. Like einsteinium, it is found in hydrogen bomb products and is kept secret until 1955.

1953 Argonne Cancer Research Hospital opens.

1953 Third Tri-Partite Conference on Internal Dosimetry (Arden House, Harriman, NY) sets dose limit of 1.5 rem/yr. to individual members of the general public; 100 pCi/l of air for radon (12 WL months/yr.).

1953 Production of nuclear weapons triggers begins at Rocky Flats, CO.

1954 (Jan 21) US Navy launches the first nuclear powered submarine, the U.S.S. Nautilus; capabilities include cruising 62,500 miles without refueling.

1954 (Feb - May) Castle bomb tests at Pacific Proving Grounds; 6 shots; includes 15 MT "Bravo".

1954 (March 1) US hydrogen bomb test (Castle Bravo) over Bikini results in fallout over Marshall Islands, contaminates crew of 23 on Fortunate Dragon 7, 28 US servicemen, and 239 Marshall Islanders.

1954 (June) First electricity generated from nuclear power in USSR in a five megawatt power station.

1954 (Aug 30) Atomic Energy Act of 1954 passed permits private ownership of nuclear power.

1954 (Sept 6) Ground broken for Shippingport Atomic Power Station (PA).

1954 (Sept 13) 40,000 USSR soldiers participate in wargame where a nuclear bomb is detonated at 1,150 feet in the air. Troops sent immediately into contaminated dust in Totsk, Kazakhstan.

1954 Work on Ra-223, daughter of actinium, and its biological effects (Berkeley, CA).

1954 Kerr-McGee opens uranium mines in Red Rock, Arizona, employing 100 Navajos.

1954 Indications appear that tissue burdens of uranium in man are lower than predicted by models (Eisenbud & Quigley).

1954 Radioactive particles receive attention at Hanford.

1954 Utah conference on plutonium, radium, and mesothorium (2nd Annual).

1954 Start-up of Rocky Flats plant (Colorado).

Peaceful Use Era

1955 (Jan 10) AEC announces the Power Demonstration Reactor Program under which the AEC and industry would cooperate to build and operate reactors.

1955 (Feb - May) Teapot bomb tests at Nevada Test Site; 6 shots; yields 1 - 43 KT.

1955 (Mar 1) 1 person exposed to fission product fallout at Nevada Test Site.

1955 (May 14) Wigwam bomb test off west coast of US; 1 deep (2000 ft) underwater burst of 30 KT.

1955 (July) Arco, Idaho becomes the first U.S. town to be powered by nuclear energy.

1955 (Aug 8-20) First UN International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy held in Geneva, Switzerland.

1955 (Nov 22) USSR explodes second hydrogen bomb.

1955 (Nov 29) EBR-1 melts half its fuel rods.

1955 (Dec 8) Melbourne, Australia, 3 persons are accidentally exposed to a Cs-137 radiography device.

1955 Albert Einstein (born 1879) dies.

1955 Formulation of standards for single exposures by Morgan, Snyder, & Ford.

1955 United Nations Scientific Committee (UNSCEAR) organized to gather information, much of it pertinent to standard setting.

1955 Synthesis of mendelevium G. T. Seaborg, S. G. Tompson, A. Ghiorso, and K. Street Jr. (United States).

1956 (April 30) Los Alamos Scientific Labs accidentally exposes one person to transuranics.

1956 (Jan 18) Reynolds Electric, Las Vegas, NV, 4 persons exposed to plutonium.

1956 (May - July) Redwing bomb tests at Pacific Proving Grounds; 13 shots; first US airdrop of thermonuclear device (MT range).

1956 (May 16 & June 19) Operation Mosaic, British tests, 15 KT & 98 KT on Monte Bello Islands in West Australia; cloud contaminates mainland on second shot.

1956 (June 6) AEC safety study warns against construction of the Fermi breeder plant.

1956 (July 27) Broken Arrow 1, Lakenheath AFB, UK. US B-47 bomber catches fire on landing and crashes into nuclear bomb storage igloo. 3 Mark 6 bombs containing 8000 lb. of TNT trigger each threaten to explode. Fire crew heroically pour foam on igloo instead of trying to save four trapped fliers.

1956 (Sept - Oct) Operation Buffalo, British tests, 15 KT & 10 KT tower shots, 3 KT airburst, and 1.5 KT surface detonation at Maralinga, South Australia.

1956 (Oct 17) First full-size nuclear power plant, Windscale, opened by Queen Elizabeth II (Britain).

1956 National Academy of Sciences and ICRP recommend lower basic permissible dose for radiation workers to 5 rad/year.

1956 Indications that uranium may be less toxic to humans than animal experiments predict --Eisenbud.

1956 Early reports of strontium metabolism in man by Comar, Laszlo, & Spencer.

1956 Irene Joliot-Curie (born 1897) dies of aplastic anemia.

1957 (Jan 1) US Air Force and AEC pick Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (California) to develop Pluto, a Supersonic Low-Altitude Missile. Pluto uses a nuclear ramjet to propel itself to Mach 3. Its reactor, Tory, is designed by Ted Merkle. The missile is planned to fly under radar and drop hydrogen bombs on the USSR.

1957 (Mar 29) "Study of Some Physical and Biological Aspects of the Action of High Energy Electrons on Microorganisms." is published by Michael Reese Hospital. The work, (for the U.S. Army Quartermaster Corps, is to "be used in developing the high energy electron beam from the linear accelerator as a tool for the preservation of food by irradiation

1957 (May - Oct) Plumbbob bomb tests at Nevada Test Site; 24 shots; including the highest yield shot fired to date in the continental US ("Hood", 74 KT); first deep (790') underground burst ("Ranier", 1.7 KT).

1957 (May 15) First British hydrogen bomb destroys Christmas Island in South Pacific.

1957 (May 22) Broken Arrow 2, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico; B-36 bomber mistakenly releases 10 MT Mark 17 hydrogen bomb at 1700 feet over University of NM land; makes crater 12 ft deep and 25 ft in diameter; no contamination found.

1957 (July 28) C-124 goes down in Atlantic losing two nuclear weapons; never recovered.

1957 (July) The Sodium Reactor Experiment in Santa Susana, CA. generates the first power from a civilian nuclear reactor.

1957 (Aug 31) "Smoky" is tested at Nevada test site.

1957 (Sept 1) Eisenhower signs Price-Anderson Amendment to the Atomic Energy Act to limit liability in case of nuclear industry accident.

1957 (Sept 11) $1 million fire in Building 771at Rocky Flats, CO blows out all 620 filters and releases unspecified amount of contamination from the 30 - 45 lb. of burning plutonium.

1957 (Sept 29) Explosion of underground, high-level nuclear waste storage tank at Mayak Chemical Complex, near Chelyabinsk and Kyshtym (USSR) in the Urals vents 2 million curies over 15,000 sq. miles. Population of over 250,000 resettled due to Sr-90 contamination, 10,180 exposed. Possibly the world's worst nuclear accident.

1957 (Sept - Oct) Operation Antler, British tests, 1 KT & 6 KT tower shots, 25 KT air burst.

1957 (Sept) U.S. sets off first underground nuclear test in a mountain tunnel in the remote desert 100 miles from Las Vegas, NV.

1957 (Oct 1) UN establishes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna, Austria.

1957 (Oct 10-12) Fire at Windscale Pile No. 1 (England) releases I-131 over 200 sq. mi. Contaminated milk dumped into Irish Sea.

1957 (Oct 11) Homestead AFB, Fl., B-47 crashes on landing, kills four man crew, high explosives on nuclear weapon explode.

1957 (Dec 2) Shippingport, a PWR/LWBR, goes critical in Shippingport, PA; closed Oct 1982.

1957 NCRP introduces age prorating concept of 5(N-18) for occupational exposure and 0.5 rad/year general public.

1957 American Council of Governmental Industrial Hygienists suggests a single value for air concentration of both soluble and insoluble natural uranium.

1957 Wash-740 projects damage from maximum credible nuclear accident.

1957 Nobelium discovered at the Nobel Institute of Physics (Sweden).

1958 (Jan 31) Sidi Slimane, French Morocco, US B-47 crashes with one nuclear weapon, radioactive contamination spread to asphalt beneath plane wreckage.

1958 (Mar 11) Broken Arrow 3, Florence, SC, B-47 drops bomb from 14000 ft on garden of Walter Gregg in Mars Bluff, SC makes crater 35 ft deep and 75 ft across; chemical trigger designed to set off TNT explodes spreading plutonium contamination.

1958 (April - Aug) Hardtack-Phase I bomb tests at Eniwetok Proving Grounds; 31 shots; including 2 rockets detonated at high altitudes (up to 252,000 feet).

1958 (May 22) Construction begins on the world's first nuclear powered merchant ship, N. S. Savannah, in Camden, NJ. Ship is launched July 21, 1959.

1958 (May 23) NRU experimental reactor at Chalk River (Canada) goes out of control and releases radioactivity.

1958 (June 16) Oak Ridge National Labs, 8 persons exposed at the Y-12 site during a chemical operations criticality accident.

1958 (June 30) North American Aviation L 47 homogeneous reactor, 5 Wt, in Canoga Park, CA, is closed.

1958 (June) Alice Stewart publishes first major findings on carcinogenic effect of diagnostic radiation on children.

1958 (Aug - Sept) Argus Project; detonation of 3 low-yield nuclear devices in outer space.

1958 (Sept) Troitsk A, a LGR, goes on-line in Troitsk, Chelyabinsk, RSFSR (USSR); closed 1989.

1958 (Sept - Oct) Hardtack-Phase II at Nevada Test Site; 19 shots; including underground tests (100' to 850') and some shots dropped from balloons

1958 (Oct 15) Vinca Yugoslavia 6 persons, reactor criticality accident (est. doses: 436 rad, 414 rad, 426 rad, 419 rads, 323 rads, 207 rads ).

1958 (Nov 4) Dyess AFB, Texas, B-47 catches fire on take-off; nuclear weapon's high explosive detonates, blasting crater 35 ft in diameter and 6 ft deep; nuclear materials recovered near crash site; one killed in crash.

1958 (Nov 18) Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment Facility, National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho, suffers extensive fuel damage and releases radioactive material.

1958 (Nov 26) Chennault AFB, Lake Charles, LA, B-47 catches fire on the ground, one nuclear weapon destroyed, contaminates wreckage.

1958 (Dec 30) Los Alamos Scientific Lab, 3 persons exposed during a chemical operations criticality accident.

1958 Frederic Joliot-Curie (born 1900) dies.

1958 Construction begins on Dresden #1.

1958 Reprocessing plant criticality at Los Alamos, NM kills 1.

1958 Bureau of Radiological Health organized within US Public Health Service.

1958 Stannard proposes that lung be regarded as a moderately radiosensitive organ.

1958 Synthesis of nobelium.

1959 (Feb 17) High levels of Sr-90 reported in US milk and in children's bones.

1959 (Apr) Marcoule G2, a GCR, goes on-line in Marcoule, Gard (France); closed Feb 1980.

1959 (July 6) Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, C-124 crashes on take-off, catches fire and destroys nuclear weapon, spreading contamination below the weapon.

1959 (July 26) AEC's Sodium Reactor Experiment reactor, Santa Barbara, CA, 10 of 43 fuel assemblies damaged due to lack of heat transfer, releases contamination.

1959 (Oct) Dresden-1 Nuclear Power Station in Illinois achieves a self-sustaining nuclear reaction. It is the first US nuclear powerplant built entirely without government funding.

1959 (Nov) Chemical explosion disperses 15 g of plutonium at Oak Ridge, TN.

1959 (Dec) Troitsk B, an LGR, goes on-line in Troitsk, Chelyabinsk (USSR); closed 1989.

1959 Leaking waste drums discovered at Rocky Flats, CO. Radioactive oils from drums flow into soil, contaminating farmlands east of plant.

1959 ICRP 1 published (superseded by ICRP 26).

1959 Large feeding experiment with Sr-90 begins with miniature swine at Hanford.

1959 Tri-State Leukemia Survey begun in NY, Minnesota, & Maryland.

1959 Report of Committees 2 of NCRP and ICRP on occupational limits for exposure to radionuclides. Utilizes dual system; uses effects directly for radium and bases other bone seekers on it; uses the computational approach for all others using external radiation effects as basis.

1959 Federal Radiation Council (FRC) formed to advise the US President about radiation matters, especially standards. Series of reports issued.

1960 (Feb 13) France explodes its first A-bomb.

1960 (Mar 8) Niagara Falls, NY (Lockport Air Force Base), 9 persons exposed to radiation from a radar klystron tube.

1960 (Mar 15) Gen. Dynamics CIRGA Zirconium Hydride Mod., 25 Wt, in San Diego, CA is closed.

1960 (Mar 29) U. of Wisconsin, 12 people are accidentally exposed to radiation from a Co-60 source.

1960 (April 3) Waltz Mill, test reactor outside Pittsburgh, PA melts one fuel element.

1960 (May) Marcoule G3, a GCR, goes on-line in Marcoule, Gard (France); closed July 1984.

1960 (June 7-8) Jackson, New Jersey, BOMARC missile catches fire, unknown amount of plutonium released to atmosphere.

1960 (June 8) 19-yr. old commits suicide with 10 Ci. Cs-137 source; exposure time 20 hr.; death 18 days later (USSR).

1960 (July) Dresden #1 goes online, first BWR, 700 MWt, manufactured by GE, in Morris, Ill; closed Oct 31,1978.

1960 (Sept 1) Lockheed pool-type reactor, 10 Wt, in Dawson Co., Georgia, is closed.

1960 (Nov 8) Sandia National Lab, NM 2 persons accidentally exposed to radiation from a Van de Graaf accelerator.

1960 (Nov 28) Six men soaked with reactor coolant from USS Nautilus docked at Portsmouth, NH; dosimeters and contaminated clothing thrown away.

1960 (Nov 9) Patient swallows 2.03 millicuries of radium-226; calcium DTPA given as therapy, dies Aug 1965 from permanent blood changes (USSR).

1960 Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station, 600 MWt, PWR, goes on line in Rowe, Mass. closed Oct 1, 1991.

1960 Miniature swine at Hanford enter radioiodine experiment.

1960 First series of BEAR reports issued by NAS-NRC. Does not address standards directly but contains much pertinent information.

1960 ICRP 3 "Report of Committee III on Protection Against X-rays up to Energies of 3 MeV and Beta- and Gamma-rays from Sealed Sources" published.

1960s Metabolism of americium and radiocalcium in rat (Durbin at Berkeley).

1960s Large effort at Oak Ridge on trace elements in human tissue.

1960s Beginning of population radiation exposure standards.

1960s AEC develops elaborate code of Federal Regulations for radionuclide exposure (10CFR20). Patterned after 1959 ICRP/NCRP reports but adds population exposure limits by use of a scaling factor.

1960-1961 First two reports from FRC on basic radiation protection guides. Introduces formally the concept of balancing risks and benefits.

1961 (Jan 3) Prompt criticality accident at SL-1 US Army reactor in Idaho Falls kills three. Recovery efforts expose 47 persons.

1961 (Jan 29) Broken Arrow 4, Goldsboro, NC B-52 crashes, 24 MT bomb is one interlock away from detonating, hole 50 ft deep and 3 acres in area excavated to look for portion of one weapon, 4 million cu. ft. of earth removed.

1961 (May 11) Mound EG$G Miamisburg, OH, 1 person involved in plutonium exposure.

1961 (June) Walter Reuther releases study of forty reactor accidents, arguing against construction of Fermi breeder.

1961 (June 12) US Supreme Court gives Fermi breeder go ahead to begin construction.

1961 (June 18) Reactor LOCA on the first USSR nuclear missile submarine, the K-19. Fourteen crew members allegedly die from radiation exposure rigging a provisional cooling system using a reserve tank and pipes cut off one of the torpedoes. The welding took 90 minutes. Capt. Nikolai Zateyev reported that "the ones who got radiation doses began to swell visibly. Their faces grew red. After two hours, watery discharges came from the roots of their hair. Soon it became frightening to look at their eyes and swollen lips. They were completely disfigured. Hardly able to move their tongues, they complained of pain in the entire body." Eight officers and sailors died within days, six more died within the next several years.

1961 (June 22) Nuclear Dev. Corp. of America Crit. Ex., 100 Wt, in Pawling, NY, is closed.

1961 (Sept 1) USSR resumes nuclear testing.

1961 (Sept 15) US resumes underground testing.

1961 (Sept) President Kennedy advises Americans to build bomb shelters.

1961 (Oct 3) USSR explodes a 58 megaton hydrogen bomb in the air over Novaya Zemla. Largest weapon ever exploded in history.

1961 (Oct 20) Ohio Rad Lab, Miamisburg, OH, 1 person involved in polonium exposure.

1961 (Oct 21) Oak Ridge National Labs, TN, accident at X-10 site exposes 1 person to fission products.

1961 (Nov 25) US Navy commissions world's largest ship, the U.S.S. Enterprise, a nuclear powered aircraft carrier.

1961 Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons is resumed as well; over 100 detonations occurred before the treaty was signed

1961 First documented cases of dumping of radioactive waste into the Barents Sea (north of Finland) by USSR navy vessels.

1961 Synthesis of lawrencium by A.H. Ghiorso, T. Sikkeland, A. E. Larsh, R. M. Latimer (United States).

1961 Federal Regulations adopted in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 20.

1961 20 aged volunteers receive injections with radium in and thorium in Boston, MA. Potential doses well above occupational limits. No follow-up done.

1962 FRC Report No. 3 on the health implications of fallout.

1962 Congressional hearings on fallout.

1962 (Apr 7) Hanford, Washington, 22 persons accidentally exposed in a chemical operations criticality.

1962 (June 19) Test-shot Starfish, 1.4 MT explosion 400 km. above mid-Pacific, launched from US Johnston Island.

1962 (July 25) Test-shot Bluefish Prime; missile blows up on pad, warhead detonated by radio spreading contamination over the pad.

1962 (July 25) Mayaguez, PR, Seven employees were accidentally exposed to radiation from irradiated fuel elements when a crane operator mistakenly thought he had been given the all-clear signal to move a rack of hot fuel elements into a position against the aluminum window which separates the exposure room from the reactor pool. The room was to be vacated and the shield door closed before positioning the fuel elements against the window. The gamma room door could not be seen from the crane operator's position. When the crane operator began moving the fuel elements into the window position, the 10-millirem monitor near the gamma room door tripped an alarm. The reactor supervisor immediately ordered the fuel elements moved away from the window, terminating the incident. The estimated exposure time of the individuals was 1 1/4 seconds. The seven employees' exposures were 100 rem, 58 rem, 24 rem, 18 rem, 18 rem, 8 rem, and 4 rem. There were no radiation injuries as a result of the accident" .

1962 (Oct 7) Antarctica, Nukey Poo reactor has hydrogen fire in containment.

1962 (Nov 20) AEC submits a "Report to the President on Civilian Nuclear Power."

1962 (Nov) Berkeley 1, a GCR, goes on-line in Berkeley, Gloucester (Britain); closed Mar 1989.

1962 (Nov) Berkeley 2, a GCR, goes on-line in Berkeley, Gloucester (Britain); closed Oct 1988.

1962 Neils Bohr (born 1885) dies.

1963 (Jan 11) Sanlian, PR China, 6 persons are exposed to a Co-60 source in home (5-9 days) acute radiation syndrome , deaths of two in 11 to 12 days despite bone marrow transplant, amputation of LT. leg of one survivor 5 years post accident.

1963 (Jan) Indian Point 1, a 615 MWt PWR, goes on-line in Buchanan, NY; closed Oct 31,1974.

1963 (Apr 10) Nuclear submarine USS Thresher sinks in North Atlantic.

1963 (Apr 24) Westinghouse CVTR Mockup, Heavy Water, 3 KWt, in Waltz Mill, PA is closed.

1963 (June 13) Construction begins at first commercial reprocessing facility, West Valley.

1963 (July 1) Oak Ridge Research Reactor, Oak Ridge (Tenn.) melts part of an element releasing 1000 curies of fission products.

1963 (Aug) Humboldt Bay 3, a BWR, goes on-line in Eureka, CA; closed July 2, 1976.

1963 (Aug) US and USSR sign Limited Test Ban Treaty, which prohibits underwater, atmospheric, and outer space nuclear tests. More than 100 countries eventually ratify the treaty.

1963 (Nov 13) Medina Base, San Antonio (TX), 123,000 lb. of high explosives on nuclear weapons catch fire.

1963 (Nov) Hallam, a LMGMR, goes on-line in Hallam, Nebraska; closed Sept 1964.

1963 (Dec 9) Vallecitos, a GE BWR, 50 MWt, in Alameda County, CA, closed.

1963 FRC Report No. 4 on estimates and evaluation of fallout in the United States through 1962.

1963 Second Congressional hearing including Radiation Standards and fallout.

1963 Radium-224 added to Utah beagle experiment.

1963-70 64 volunteer prisoners receive testicular irradiation at Washington State Prison; exposures from 7 to 400 roentgen.

1963-1971 67 volunteer prisoners receive testicular irradiation at Oregon State Prison; exposures from 8 to 600 roentgens.

1964 (Jan) Latina, a GCR, goes on-line in Borgo Sabotino, Latina (Italy); closed Dec 1987.

1964 (Jan) Louisiana Pipeline, 2 persons are accidentally exposed to an Ir-192 radiography source.

1964 (Feb) Chinon A1, a GCR, goes on-line in Chinon, Indre-et-Loire (France); closed April 1973.

1964 (Mar) Hunterston A1, a GCR, goes on-line in Ayrshire, Strathclyde (Britain); closed Mar 1990.

1964 (Apr 21) US satellite disintegrates over Madagascar and releases 17,000 Ci of plutonium into the atmosphere from a SNAP-9.

1964 (Apr) Beloyarskiy 1, an LGR, goes on-line in Zarechnyy, Sverdlovsk, RSFSR (USSR); closed 1983.

1964 (June) Garigliano, a BWR, goes on-line in Sessa Aurunca, Campania (Italy); closed Mar 1982.

1964 (June 12) Rocky Flats, Golden, Co, 1 person accidentally exposed in a plutonium glove box explosion.

1964 (July 10) Hanford, WA, 1 person accidentally exposed during plutonium explosion.

1964 (July 24) 38 year old worker at uranium recovery plant, United Nuclear Corp., Wood River, RI, receives 8800 rad, 2200 of which is neutrons; dies 49 hours after accident of central nervous system failure. 6 other persons exposed in the criticality accident.

1964 (Aug) BONUS, a BWR, goes on-line in Rincon, Puerto Rico; closed June 1968.

1964 (Sept 29) South Bay Hospital Redondo Beach, CA, 2 persons are exposed to an x-ray misapplication.

1964 (Sept) Hunterston A2, a GCR, goes on-line in Ayrshire, Strathclyde (Britain); closed Dec 1989.

1964 (Oct 3) US nuclear warships, Enterprise, Long Beach, and Bainbridge complete "Operation Sea Orbit," an around the world cruise without logistic support of any kind.

1964 (Oct 16) China explodes its first A-bomb.

1964 (Dec 8) Bunker Hill AFB, Peru (Indiana) B-58 catches fire, portions of nuclear weapons burn contaminating crash site.

1964 (Dec) Novovoronezhskiy 1, a PWR, goes on-line in Novovoronezh, Voronexh, RSFSR (USSR); closed 1988.

1964 ICRP 4 "Report of Committee IV on Protection Against X-rays Electromagnetic Radiation Above 3 MeV and Electrons, Neutrons and Protons" published.

1964 ICRP 5 "Report on Committee V in the Handling and Disposal of Radioactive Materials in Hospitals and Medical Research Establishments" published (superseded by ICRP 25).

1964 ICRP 6 published as a revision to ICRP 1 (superseded by ICRP 26).

1964 FRC introduces the concept of protective action guide (PAG) and average annual limits of 170 mrem/year to "critical segment" of general population.

1964-1965 In the Gulf of Abrosimov off Novaya Zemlya, USSR, eight naval reactors are dumped into the sea, including three with fuel still intact.

1964-1979 Repeated rupture (burning) of the fuel assemblies of the core of Beloyarsk 1 (USSR) lead to overexposures in trying to repair core.

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